PROPULSION, RADIAL & AXIAL CENTERING

PROPULSION

     The SCMs suited on the propelled module will spin in a field created by the ring of the propulsion magnets suited on the rotation generator guideway, made of superconducting coils and energized by a three phase alternating current creating a shifting magnetic field. Alternating current is generating a traveling magnetic field which moves the rotating module without any contact. The on-board SCMs are attracted and pushed by the shifting field, propelling the rotating module. They are direct current magnets and their fields do not vary with time. Propulsion is achieved when the two magnetic fields are synchronized and locked among themselves. As a result, the speed of the rotation is proportional to the input frequency of the alternating current. A force that pulls the rotation forward is produced by the excitation current in the SCMs and the magnetic field induced by the propulsion magnets. The magnetic polarity (direction of the magnetic field) of the SCMs alternates along the module. The guideway loops experience an alternating wave of magnetic flux as the rotating module moves. A downwards magnetic flux is followed by an upwards flux, then by downwards flux, etc. Propulsion of the electrodynamic repulsive system can be described as "pull - neutral - push". The only clearances to be controlled are those between the rotating module and the rotation generator.

RADIAL CENTERING

     When the rotating module is displaced from the designed rotation axis and position, the SCMs on the side that gets closer to the rotation generator guideway will have the same polarity as those on the top of the guideway. The repulsive forces between the two magnetic fields will push the rotating module from the guideway toward the designed position. At the same time, the opposite set of the SCMs on the opposite side of the rotating module where the gap has increased, will have the opposite polarity then the facing ones on the top of the guideway. The attractive forces between the two fields will pull the rotating module toward the designed position. As the rotating module moves over the coils, its SCMs create a repulsive force forcing the module to float above the guideway. In other words, electrodynamics employs magnets on the rotating module to induce currents in the guideway. Resulting repulsive force produces inherently stable support and guidance because the magnetic repulsion increases as the gap between the rotating module and the rotation generator guideway decreases. At the same time will be induced attractive forces from the coils in corresponding loops. The farther the module moves from the projected rotation axis, the stronger will be the induced repulsive and attractive forces bringing it back.

AXIAL CENTERING

     Electro-magnetically propelled rotating module is able to remain centered over designed trajectory on the electro-magnetic guideway thanks to a combination of attraction and repulsion forces. Guidance or steering is possible thanks to the sideward forces that guide the rotating module to follow the guideway. When the rotating module is in the straight position no current flows, but, if it leaves the straight position it creates a changing flux that generates a field that pushes it back into the line. When running SCM slightly displace laterally from the center of the eightshaped null-flux coil, within the coil is induced electric current temporarily acting as electromagnet. Electric current induced in the loop results in repulsive forces acting on the coils on the nearer side and attractive forces acting on the coils on the side farther apart. The repulsive forces are pushing the SCM toward the straight position and the rotating module toward the desired path while attractive forces are pulling it toward at the same time. Current is induced by Lenz law to restore position of the moving SCM to nearly its midline position, because the current that flows in that coil is such as to oppose or eliminate any flux change within the coil, also known as flux eliminating coil. This can be described as magnet spring constant that is equal to the slope so, the rotating module always keeps rotating over the designed path determined by the centers of the null-flux coils.

ANGULAR MOMENTUM CANCELING

Interactions among the rotation generator and the rotating module will result in relative motion among them induced by the magnetic forces and traveling magnetic fields, provoking undesirable phase angles. It is necessary to avoid rotation of the rotation generator in free space, as it is the guideway for the rotating module. It can be achieved with two coaxial counter-rotating modules centered in a common rotation generator module and propelled to spin in opposite directions to cancel angular momentums and make it easier to orient and move the whole structure.  The total angular momentum of the system must be constant in accordance with the Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum (When the net external torque acting on a system about a given axis is zero, the total angular momentum of the system about that axis remains constant).