ELECTRODYNAMIC TECHNOLOGIES IN SPACE
Low Temperature and Superconducting Electromagnets
Temperature in space is approximately 2.725 K or almost -270 Cº that is less then 3 K above absolute zero temperature at which molecules stop moving. Although there are slight shifts of this value, it is the generally accepted temperature in space. Such a low temperature makes very interesting use of superconductor materials. Superconductivity occurs in certain materials at very low temperatures followed by zero electrical resistance and the Meissner effect, which excludes the interior magnetic field. Superconductors’ electrical resistance decreases gradually when temperature decreases and drops strongly when the material is cooled below its critical temperature. Electrodynamic systems use expensive cryogenic systems to cool SCMs, but, in the frigid space environment it will not be needed at all. The SCMs provide strong electromagnetic fields which result in stronger repulsive forces and larger and safer operating gaps between the rotating module and the rotation generator to obtain completely contactless rotation. They can conduct electricity even after the power supply is cut off. Use of SCMs in space will be highly economical and with highly improved efficiency.
Lack of Gravity
Levitation is natural condition in weightlessness deep space so, the only target to achieve is to obtain controlled rotation. Electrodynamically propulsed system suited in space will need one and unified trajectory control system to achieve fully controlled rotation for deliberate acceleration for replacing natural gravity. The only clearances to be controlled are between propulsed rotating module and rotation generator. Important technical requirements such as lift-off speed, lift-off force, and weight sensitivity are senseless. Once achieved fully controlled rotation, the weightlessness conditions will facilitate its maintenance making it highly efficient. Propelled modules have no weight in space so required propulsive power consumption will be reduced as well as a size of implemented SCMs and coils. Gravity sensation generated by rotation will be gradual, starting from zero in the axis of rotation and ending with designed values in rotating habitats.
Outer space is hard vacuum being the closest natural approximation of a perfect vacuum environment. No medium is required for propagation of electromagnetic waves as they are able to propagate in vacuum travelling at the speed of light which increase the efficiency of electromagnetic and electrodynamic technologies in space. Outer space has a very low density and pressure being effectively without friction. There is no need to have in account the atmosphere drag force nor correspondent resistance, nor frictions, which are so significant in the Earth conditions. Lift-to-drag ratio does not have sense except in the case of magnetic drag. Frontal cross section does not matter. Electrodynamically propulsed completely contactless rotation without atmospheric nor any other friction would be completely loss-less and frictionless with highly improved overall power efficiency. Another advantage of vacuum conditions in space is that there is no corrosion problem.
Abundant Solar Energy
Space offers the most favorable conditions for use of abundant and completely accessible solar energy. Energy supply needed for an electrodynamically propulsed system could be obtained directly from the Sun using photovoltaic solar panels without obstacles in a safe, reliable, renewable and highly efficient.